The following provides links and references to works related to the calculation of our football player ratings.

Academic papers

A. Groll, L. M. Hvattum, C. Ley, F. Popp, G. Schauberger, H. Van Eetvelde, and A. Zeileis. Hybrid Machine Learning Forecasts for the UEFA EURO 2020. Preprint at arXiv:2106.05799.

H. Van Eetvelde, L. M. Hvattum, and C. Ley. The probabilistic final standing calculator: a fair stochastic tool to determine the final ranking of abruptly  stopped football seasons. Preprint at arXiv:2101.10597.

G. Pantuso and L. M. Hvattum. Maximizing performance with an eye on the finances: a chance-constrained model for football transfer market decisions. TOP, 29:583–611, 2021.

H. Arntzen and L. M. Hvattum. Predicting match outcomes in association football using team ratings and player ratings. Statistical Modelling, 21:449470, 2021.

L. M. Hvattum and G. A. Gelade. Comparing bottom-up and top-down ratings for individual soccer players. International Journal of Computer Science in Sport, 20:2342, 2021.

L. M. Hvattum. Offensive and defensive plus-minus ratings for soccer. Applied Sciences, 10:7345, 2020.

G. A. Gelade and L. M. Hvattum. On the relationship between +/- ratings and event-level performance statistics. Journal of Sports Analytics,  6:8597, 2020.

L. M. Hvattum. A comprehensive review of plus-minus ratings for evaluating individual players in team sports. International Journal of Computer Science in Sport, 18:123, 2019.

O. D. Sæbø and L. M. Hvattum. Modelling the financial contribution of soccer players to their clubs. Journal of Sports Analytics, 5:23–34, 2019.

O. D. Sæbø and L. M. Hvattum. Evaluating the efficiency of the association football transfer market using regression based player ratings. In NIK: Norsk Informatikkonferanse, 12 pages. Bibsys Open Journal Systems, 2015.

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